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abrams lawa rule stating that with given concrete materials and conditions of test the ratio of the amount of water to the amount of the cement in the mixture determines the strength of the concrete, provided the mixture is of a workable consistency. (see also watercement ratio). 
  
abrasionwearing away by friction. 
  
abrasion resistanceability of a surface to resist being worn away by rubbing and friction. 
  
abrasive finisha flat non-reflective surface finish for marble.
  
absorbed moisturemoisture that has entered a solid material by absorption and has physical properties not ubstantially different from ordinary water at the same temperature and pressure. (see also absorption.) 
  
absorptionthe relationship of the weight of the water absorbed by a ceramic specimen subjected to prescribed immersion procedure, to the weight of the dry /specimen, expressed in percent.  
  
abutmenta solid stone “springer” at the lowest point of an arch or vault.
  
acceleratora substance which, when added to concrete, mortar, or grout, increases the rate of hydration of the hydraulic cement, shortens the time of setting, or increases the rate of hardening of strength development, or both. (see also acceleration.) 
  
accessories (tile accessories)ceramic or non-ceramic articles, affixed to or inserted in tile work, as exemplified by towel bars, paper, soap and tumbler holders, /grab bars and the like. 
  
acida chemical substance usually corrosive to common metals (iron, ,aluminum, zinc) and which, in water solution, imparts an acid, sour or tart taste. acids are generally divided into two classes: (a) strong mineral or inorganic acids such as sulfamic, sulfuric, phosphoric, hydrochloric or nitric, (b) weak organic or natural acids such as acetic (vinegar), citric (citrus fruit juices), oxalic, and fatty acids (oleic, palmitic, stearic, etc.) 
  
acid washa treatment applied to the face of a stone to  achieve a texture or finish that is distressed. chemical treatments are more effective when applied to calcareous stones than to siliceous stone types. recently, the use of acid and other types of chemical treatments has lessened due to environmental and disposal concerns. chemical processes have been replaced by mechanical methods for the texturing of the stone face.
  
aciditya general term applying to substances on the acid side of neutral – principally the degree of acidity. acrylic. a general class of resinous polymers derived from esters, amides or other acrylic acid derivatives. 
  
acrylic plasticsplastics based on resins made by the polymerization of acrylic monomers, such as ethyl acrylate and methacrylate.
  
additivea term frequently (but improperly) used as a synonym for addition or admixture. 
  
adheredveneer secured and supported through adhesion to an approved bonding material applied over an approved backing.
  
adhesionthe state in which two surfaces are held together by interfacial forces which may consist of valence forces or interlocking action, or both. (see also adhesion, mechanical and adhesion, specific.)
  
adhesion mechanicaladhesion between surfaces in which the adhesive holds the parts together by interlocking action. (see also adhesion, specific.) 
  
adhesion, specificadhesion between surfaces which are held together by valence forces of the same type as those which give rise to cohesion. (see also adhesion, mechanical.) 
  
adhesivea substance capable of holding materials together by surface attachment. note: adhesive is the general term and includes among other cement, glue, mucilage and paste. all of these terms are loosely used interchangeably. various descriptive adjectives are applied to the term adhesive to indicate certain characeristics as follows: (a) physical form,. that is liquid adhesive, tape adhesive, (b) chemical type, that is, silicate adhesive, resin adhesive, (c) materials bonded, that is, paper adhesive, metal-plastic adhesive, can label adhesive, (d) conditions of use, that is, hot-setting adhesive. 
  
adhesive ceramicused for bonding tile to a surface. rubber solvents; and rubber and resin-based emulsions can be used as adhesives. 
  
adhesive, pressure-sensitivean adhesive made so as to adhere to a surface at room temperature by briefly applied pressure alone. 
  
adhesive, solventan adhesive having a volatile organic liquid as a vehicle. note: this term excludes water based adhesives. 
  
admixturea material other than water, aggregates, and hydraulic cement, used as an ingredient of concrete or mortar, and added to the concrete immediately before or during its mixing. 
  
adobeunburnt brick dried in the sun. 
  
adoquina volcanic, quartz-based stone containing a variety of colored aggregates and pumice in a quartz matrix. quarried in mexico. available in several colors.
  
agatea variegated variety of quartz showing colored bands or other markings (clouded, mosslike, etc.).
  
agglomerated stonea manmade product composed of crushed sotne combined with resin.
  
aggregategranular material, such as sand, gravel, crushed stone, and iron blast-furnace slag, used with a cementing medium to form a hydraulic-cement, concrete or mortar. (see also aggregate, heavyweight and aggregate, lightweight.) 
  
aggregate, heavyweightaggregate, of high specific gravity such as barite, magnetite, limonite, ilmenite, iron or steel used to produce heavy concrete. aggregate, lightweight. aggregate, of low specific gravity, such as expanded or sintered clay, shale, slate, diatomaceous shale, perlite, vermiculite, or slag; natural pumice, scoria, volcanic cinders, tuff, and diatomite; sintered fly ash or industrial cinders; used to produce lightweight concrete. 
  
air, entrainedsee entrained air. 
  
air-entrainingthe capability of a material or process to develop a system of minute bubbles of air in cement, mortar, or concrete during mixing. 
  
air-entrainmentthe occlusion of air in the form of minute bubbles (generally smaller than lmm) during the mixing of concrete or mortar. (see also air entraining and entrained air.) 
  
air-slacka condition where soft-body clay, after absorbing moisture and being exposed to the atmosphere, will spall a piece of clay and/or glaze. 
  
alabastera fine-grained and translucent variety of gypsum, generally white in color. may be cut and carved easily with a knife or saw. term is often incorrectly applied to fine-grained marble.
  
alkalia chemical substance which effectively neutralizes acid material so as to form neutral salts. a base. the opposite of acid. examples are ammonia and caustic soda. 
  
alkalinepertains to a highly basic, as opposed to acidic, subtance; for example, hydrogen or carbonate of sodium or potassium.
  
alumina porcelaina vitreous ceramic whiteware for technical application in which alumina (a1203) is the essential crystalline phase.  
  
alumina whitewareany ceramic whiteware in which alumina (a1203) is the essential crystalline phase.  
  
anchorstypes of stonework include those made of flat stock (strap, cramps, dovetails, dowel, strap and dowel, and two-way anchors) and round stock (rod cramp, rod anchor, eyebolt and dowel, flat-hood wall tie and dowel, dowel and wire toggle bolts).
  
andalusitea polymorph, along with sellimanite and kyanite, of composition a1203 si02. on firing, it disociates to yield principally mullite.  
  
anglarmasonry composed of squared stones; one patem of masonry construction. 
  
angle curingsteam curing of concrete products, sand-lime brick, asbestos-cement products, hydrous calcium silicate insulation products, or cement in an autoclave at maximum ambient temperatures generally between 340-420 f (176-215 c). 
  
antique finisha finish that replicates rusticated or distressed textures. produced though mechanical or chemical means to simulate the naturally occurring effects of the aging process.
  
apex stoneuppermost stone in a gable, pediment, vault or dome.
  
aprona trim piece under projecting stone top, stool, etc.
  
archa curved stone structure resting on supports at both extremities used to sustain weight, to bridge or roof an open space.
  
architravethe member of an entablature resting on the capitals of columns and supporting the frieze.
  
archoragethe means by which slabs are attached to a self-supporting structure.
  
argillitea compact sedimentary rock composed mainly of clay and aluminum silicate minerals.
  
arkosea sandstone containing 10% or more clastic grains of feldspar. also called arkosic sandstone, feldspathic sandstone.
  
arrisa natural or applied line on the stone from which all leveling and plumbing is measured.
  
ashlarmasonry having a face of square or rectangular stones, either smooth or textured.
  
autoclavea pressure vessel in which an environment of steam at high pressure may be produced; used in the curing of concrete products and in the testing of ydraulic cement.