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calcarenitelimestone composed predominantly of clastic sand-size grains of calcite, or rarely aragonite, usually as fragments of shells or other skeletal structures. some calcarenites contain oolites (small, spherical grains of calcium carbonate that resemble roe) and may be termed oolite limestone. calcareous sandstones, in which the calcium carbonate is present chiefly as bonding material, are not included in this category.
  
calcareousrefers to substances containing or composed of calcium barbonate.
  
calcinea ceramic mineral or mixture fired to less than fusion for use as a constituent in a ceramic composition. 
  
calcite limestonea limestone containing not more than 5% of magnesium carbonate.
  
calcite streaksdescription of a white or milky-like streak occurring in stone. it is a joint plane usually wider than a glass seam and has been re-cemented by deposition of calcite in the crack and is structurally sound.
  
calibrationthe first step in the finishing process of a stone tile. coarse abrasives pads are mounted to the bottom of rotating wheels that under extreme pressure and rotation speed are applied to the face of the stone. this process grinds the stone to a uniform and consistent thickness of 1 mm tolerance, which is crucial for the installation of tile in a thin-set application. calibration is applicable only to dense stones that can take a honed or polished finish, such as limestone, marble and granite tile. the term is often erroneusly applied to slates, quartzites, and other cleft-face stones, where the precision of the calibration process in not possible. sawn-back or ground-back techniques are applied to these typoes of stones, and are correctly called “gauging,” which is not as precision-oriented as calibration. 
  
cambera deflection that is intentionally built into a structural element or form to improve appearance or to nullify the deflection of the element under the effects of loads, shrinkage and creep.
canopya sheltering roof, as over a niche or a doorway.
  
canteraa volvanic, quartz-based sotne with qualities similar to adoquinbut not as dense.
  
capsee bullnose.
  
capitalthe culminating stone at the top of a column or pilaster, often richly carved.
  
carveshaping, by cutting a design to form the trade of a sculptor.
  
castingforming ceramic ware by introducing a body slip into a porous mold which absorbs sufficient water from the slip to produce a semirigid article. 
  
casting plastera fast-setting gypsum plaster that is used to anchor marble to walls, set spots, or mix temporary “hot mud.”
  
casting solidforming ceramic ware by introducing a body slip into a porous mold which usually consists of two major sections, one section forming the contour of the inside of the ware and allowing a solid cast to form between the two mold faces. 
  
casting, drain forming ceramic ware by introducing a body slip into an open porous mold, and then draining off the remaining slip when the cast has reached the desired thickness. 
  
cast-in-placemortar or concrete which is deposited in the place where it is required to harden as part of the structure, as opposed to precast concrete.
  
caulkingmaking a marble joint tight or leak-proof by sealing with an elastic adhesive compound.
  
caulking compounda soft, plastic material consisting of pigment and vehicle, used for sealing joints in buildings and other structures where normal structural movement may occur.caulking compound retains its plasticity for an extended period after application. it is available in forms suitable for application by gun and knife and in extruded preformed shapes.
  
cavity venta vent or opening in the joints between stones to provide even atmospheric pressure and humidity between the cavity and outside air; to prevent condensation and the migration of water into the structure.
  
cavity wall masonry wall built with a continuous air space between the outer masonry, typically brick or stone, and the inner wall, typically concrete block or frame construction. water that penetrates the outer masonry in driving rain runs down through the cavity and is directed out at the bottom through weep holes. see weep holes.
  
ceiling mortarextra-rich wall mortar.
  
cementusually refers to portland cement which when mixed with sand, gravel, and water forms concrete. generally, cement is an adhesive; specifically, it is that type of adhesive which sets by virtue of a chemical reaction.
  
cement grouta cementitious mixture of portland cement, sand or other ingredients and water which produces a water resistant, uniformly colored material used to fill joints between tile units.
  
cement mortara cementitious mixture of portland cement, sand or other ingredients and water which is used for bonding tile to back-up material.
  
cement portlanda hydraulic cement produced by pulverizing clinker consisting essentially of hydraulic calcium silicates, and usually containing one or more of the forms of calcium sulfate as an interground addition. cement, white. portland cement which hydrates to a white paste; made from raw materials of low iron content, the clinker for which is fired by a reducing flame.
  
cement putty-cream-buttera thick creamy mixture made with pure cement and water which is used to strengthen the bond between the stone and the setting bed.
  
cement, masonrya hydraulic cement for use in mortars for masonry construction, containing one or more of the following materials: portland cement, portland blast-furnace slag cement, portland-pozzolan cement, natural cement, slag cement or hydraulic lime; and in addition usually containing one or more materials such as hydrated lime, limestone, chalk, calcareous shell, talc, slag, or clay, as prepared for this purpose.
  
cement-body tilestiles with the body made from a mixture of sand and portland cement. the surface may be finished with portland cement, spheroids of marble or other materials.
  
centigradea scale of temperature which features 0° and 100° as the freezing and boiling point of water respectively. to convert centigrade to fahrenheit multiply by 1.8 and add 32, e.g., (100°x1.8)- 32=212°f.
  
ceramic articlean article having a glazed or unglazed body of crystalline or partly crystalline structure, or of glass, which body is produced from essentially inorganic, nonmetallic substances and either is formed from a molten mass which solidifies on cooling or is formed and simultaneously or subsequently matured by the action of the heat. 
  
ceramic mosaic tilean unglazed tile formed by either the dust-pressed or plastic method, usually 1/a to 3/a in. (6.4 to 9.5 mm) thick, and having a facial area of less than 6 in. 2 and which is usually mounted on sheets approximately 2 by 1 ft. (0.3 by 0.6 m) to facilitate setting. ceramic mosaic tile may be of either porcelain or natural clay composition and may be either plain or with an abrasive mixture throughout.  ceramic paste. a french term synonymous with “ceramic body.” 
  
ceramic processthe production of articles or coatings from essentially inorganic, nonmetallic materials, the article or coating being made permanent and suitable for utilitarian and decorative purposes by the action of heat at temperatures sufficient to cause sintering, solid-state reactions, bonding, or conversion partially or wholly to the glassy state. 
  
ceramic tilea ceramic surfacing unit, usually relatively thin in relation to facial area, made from clay or a mixture of clay; and other ceramic material, called the body of the tile, having either a “glazed” or “unglazed” face, and fired above red heat in the course of manufacture to a temperature sufficiently high to produce specific physical properties and characteristics.
  
ceramic whitewarea fired ware consisting of a glazed or unglazed ceramic body which is commonly white and of fine texture. this term designates such products as china, porcelain, semivitreous ware and earthenware. 
  
ceramicsa general term applied to the art or technique of producing articles by a ceramic process, or to the articles so producing. 
  
chairsee bar support.
  
chalk lineusually cotton cord coated with chalk. the cord is snapped to mark a straight line. the chalk line is used to align spots or screeds.
  
chamferto bevel the junction of an exterior angle.
  
chat-sawn finisha rough gangsaw finish produced by sawing with coarse chat.
  
checkingshort shallow cracks on the surface. chemical porcelain. vitreous ceramic whitewares used for containing, transporting, or reacting of chemicals. 
  
chippedcaused from the same reasons as given under “pitted” or by rough handling and confined to the corners and edges of the tile.
  
chipping hammerthe chipping hammer is a lightweight hammer that comes in a variety of sizes. the head and back can be capped with tungsten carbide for durability. it is used by the tilesetter to chip excess material from the backs and edges of wall and quarry tiles, thus reducing the amount of grinding work necessary to smooth a cut.
  
chipsthe scaling or breaking off at the edges of fragments from the surface of a tile, as might result from rough handling.
  
chiseled edgea process of mechanically chipping the tile edge, thus giving the stone a rustic, aged appearance
  
claddingnon-load-bearing thin stone slabs used for facing buildings.
  
claya natural mineral aggregate, consisting essentially of hydrous aluminum silicates; it is plastic when sufficiently wetted, rigid when dried en masse, and vitrified when fired to a sufficiently high temperature. 
  
clear glazea colorless or colored transparent ceramic glaze. 
  
cleavagethe ability of a rock mass to break along natural surfaces; a surface of natural parting.
  
cleavage membranea layer of 15 lb. roofing felt, or an equivalent type of construction paper or polyethylene sheeting, used to isolate a wire reinforced mortar bed for tile from the concrete substrate. 
  
cleavage planeplane or planes along which a stone may likely break or delaminate.
  
cleft finishrough-surfaced stones such as slates that are cleaved or separated along a natural seam are referred to as natural cleft. these types of stones were formed as a result of metamorphic foliation.
  
coatinga protective or decorative covering applied to the surface or impregnated into stone for such purposes as waterproofing, enhancing resistance to weathering, wear, and chemical action, or improving appearance of the stone.
  
cobblestonea natural rounded stone, large enough for use in paving; commonly used to describe paving blocks, usually granite, generally cut to rectangular shapes.
  
cold jointany point in a tile installation where tile and setting bed have terminated and the surface has lost its plasticity before work is continued.
  
cold joint linesvisible lines on the surfaces of formed concrete indicating the presence of joints where one layer of concrete had hardened before subsequent concrete was placed. (see also cold joint).
  
colonnadea range of columns supporting an entablature or one side of a roof.
  
colorthe aspect of the appearance of an object dependent upon the spectral composition of the incident light, the spectral reflectance of transmittance of the object, and the spectral response of the observer.
  
colored groutcommercially prepared grout consisting of carefully graded aggregate, portland cement, water dispersing agents, plasticizers and color fast pigments. .
  
columna member used primarily to support axial compression loads and with a height of at least three times its least lateral dimension.
  
commercial marblea crystalline rock composed predominantly of one or more of the following materials: calcite dolomite or serpentine, and capable of taking a polish.
  
compactionthe process whereby the volume of freshly placed mortar or concrete is reduced to the minimum practical space usually by vibration, centrifugation, tamping, or some combination of these; to mold it within forms or molds and around embedded parts and reinforcement, and to eliminate voids other than entrained air.
  
compositea construction unit in which stone that is to be exposed in the final use is permanently bonded or joined to other material, which may be stone manufactured material, that will be concealed.
  
composition tilea hard tile surfacing unit made from a mixture of chemicals. the finished surface can be the mixture of chemicals or can be marble chips to create a terrazzo finish. the unit is made hard by the set of the chemicals and the product is not fired as in the manufacture of ceramic tile. 
  
compressive strengththe measured maximum resistance of a concrete or mortar specimen to axial loading; expressed as force per unit cross-sectional area; or the specified resistance used in design calculations, in the u.s. customary units of measure expressed in pounds per square inch (psi).
  
concretea composite material which consists essentially of a binding medium within which are embedded particles or fragments of aggregate; in portland cement concrete, the binder is a mixture of portland cement and water.
  
concrete pumpan apparatus which forces concrete to the placing position through a pipeline or hose. concrete, prestressed. see prestressed concrete. concrete, pumped. see pumped concrete.
  
concrete, fibrousconcrete containing, dispersed, randomly oriented fibers.
  
concrete, fieldconcrete delivered or mixed, placed, and cured on the job site.
  
concrete, foamedconcrete made very light and cellular by the addition of a prepared foam or by generation of gas within the unhardened mixture.
  
concrete, greenconcrete which has set but not appreciably hardened.
  
concrete, precastsee precast concrete.
  
concrete, refractorysee refractory concrete.
  
concrete, terrazzomarble-aggregate concrete that is cast-in-place precast and ground smooth for decorative surfacing purposes on floors and walls.
  
condensationusually refers to liquid drops which form when a vapor is chilled below its boiling point. also refers to water droplets that deposit on surfaces whose temperature is below the dewpoint.
  
conductivehaving the quality or power of conducting or transmitting heat, electricity, or static electricity.
  
conductive mortara tile mortar to which specific electrical conductivity is imparted through the use of conductive additives.
  
conductive tiletile made from special body compositions or by methods that result in specific properties of electrical conductivity while retaining other normal physical properties of ceramic tile. (ss-t-308b)
  
conglomerategravel that has been cemented together with silica, iron oxide or calcium carbonate.
  
contaminatedstained tile as a result of carton and tile being saturated by moisture, oils, solvents or other materials.
  
contraction jointformed, sawed, or tooled groove in a concrete structure to create a weakened plane and regulate the location or cracking resulting from the dimensional change of different parts of the structure. (see also isolation joint.)
  
contraction jointsspaces where panels are joined and which expand as the panels contract.
  
control jointprovided so that the movement of different parts of the structure due to shrinkage, expansion, temperature changes or other causes do not transfer loads across the joint.
  
conventional installationthe method of installing ceramic tile with portland cement mortar.
  
copingthe material or units used to form a cap or finish on top of a wall, pier, pilaster, or chimney.
  
coquinaa limestone composed predominantly of unaltered shells or fragments of shells loosely cemented by calcite. coquina is generally very coarse-textured and has a high porosity. the term has been applied principally to a very porous shell rock of eocence age that has been quarried in florida.
  
corbela projection from the face of a beam, girder, column, or wall used as a beam seat or a decoration.
  
corbel platesplates of non-ferrous metal fixed into a structure to support stone cladding at intervals and over openings in such a way as not to be visible.
  
cornerstonea stone forming a part of a corner or angle in a wall. also a stone laid at the formal inauguration of the erection of a building, not necessarily at a corner, usually incorporating a date or inscription.
  
cornicea molded projecting stone at the top or an entablature.
  
corrosionthe eating and wearing away by chemical action (pitting, rusting).
  
coursea horizontal range of stone units the length of the wall.
  
coursed veneerthis is achieved by using stones of the same or approximately the same heights. horizontal joints run the entire length of the veneered area. vertical joints are constantly broken so that no two joints will be over one another.
  
covea trim tile unit having one edge with a concave radius. a cove is used to form a junction between the bottom wall course and the floor or to form an inside corner. 
  
cove base (sanitary)a trim tile having a concave radius on one edge and a convex radius with a flat landing on the opposite edge. this base often is used as the only course of tile above the floor tile.
  
coveragea measure of the amount of material required to cover a given surface.
  
covering powerthe ability of a glaze to uniformly and completely cover the surface of the fired water. 
  
cracka break, split, fracture, fissure, separation, cleavage, or elongated narrow opening, however caused, visible without magnification to the human eye and extending from the surface into the stone, that must extend through the grain or matrix.
  
crack-control reinforcementreinforcement in concrete construction designed to prevent opening of cracks, often effective in limiting them to uniformly distributed small cracks.
  
crackedtiles that have actually been cracked in one or more pieces usually during the beating in process of installation. these will show up as hairline cracks.
  
crawlinga parting and contraction of the glaze on the surface of ceramic ware during drying or firing, resulting in unglazed areas bordered by coalesced glaze.
  
crazingthe cracking which occurs in fired glazes or other ceramic coatings due to critical tensile stresses. 
  
creeptune-dependent deformation due to sustained load.
  
crooked edgesa curvature of the sides, either convex or concave, measured along the sides. the degree of crook is the departure from the straight line between two corners, expressed in percentage of the tile length. crow hop. a slang term used to describe tile joints that are out of alignment.
  
cross-beddingthe arrangement of laminations of strata transverse or oblique to the main planes of stratification.
  
cross-cutthe process of cutting the initial block of stone parallel to the natural bedding plane. the effect is a mottled or cloudlike appearance.
  
crowfoot (styolite)description of a dark gray to black zigzag marking occurring in stone. usually structurally sound.
  
crystalline glazeglazed tile with an extra heavy glaze produced for use on counter tops and light duty floor surfaces where abrasion or impact is not excessive. 
  
crystalline limestonea limestone, either calcitic or dolomitic, composed of interlocking crystalline grains of the constituent minerals and of phaneritic texture; commonly used synonymously with marble and thus representing a recrystallized limestone; improperly applied to limestones that display some obviously crystalline grains in a fine-grained mass but which are not of interlocking texture and do not compose the entire mass. (note: all limestones are microscopically, or in part megascopically, crystalline, the term is thus confusing but should be restricted to stones that are completely crystalline and of megascopic and interlocking texture and that may be classed as marbles).
  
cubic stonedimension units more than 2 inches thick.
  
cultured marble an artificial, manmade product resembling marble.
  
curbingslabs and blocks of stone bordering streets, walks, etc.
  
curingmaintenance of humidity and temperature of freshly placed concrete during some definite period following placing, casting, or finishing to assure satisfactory hydration of the cementitious materials and proper hardening of the concrete.
  
curing blanketa built-up covering of sacks, matting, hessian, straw, waterproof paper, or other suitable material placed over freshly finished concrete. (see also burlap.)
  
curing compounda liquid that can be applied as a coating to the surface of newly placed concrete to retard the loss of water or, in the case of pigmented compounds, also to reflect heat so as to provide an opportunity for the concrete to develop its properties in a favorable temperature and moisture environment. (see also curing.)
  
curing, electricala system in which a favorable temperature is maintained in freshly-placed concrete by supplying heat generated by electrical resistance. curing, steam. see steam curing.
  
curlingthe distortion of an originally essentially linear or planar member into a curved shape such as the warping of a slab due to creep or to differences in temperature or moisture content in the zones adjacent to its opposite faces.
  
curtain wallstone cladding supported by an anchoring system. used to protect a building from the elements.
  
cushiona resilient pad placed between adjoining stone units and other materials to absorb or counteract severe stresses
  
cushion-edged tiletile on which the facial edges have a distinct curvature that results in a slightly recessed joint.
  
cut stonethis includes all stone cut or machined to give sizes, dimension or shape, and produced in accordance with working or shop drawings which have been developed from the architect’s structural drawings.
  
cutting stocka term used to describe slabs of varying size, finish, and thickness which are used in fabrication treads, risers, copings, borders, sills, stools, hearths, mantels, and other special purpose stones.