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saddlea flat strip of stone projecting above the floor between the jambs of the door; a threshold.
  
saga term used when a wall surface has developed a slide.
  
salamandera portable source of heat, customarily oilburning, used ‘to heat an enclosure around or over newly placed concrete to prevent the concrete from freezing.
  
salt glazea glaze produced by the reaction, at elevated temperature, between the ceramic body surface and salt fumes produced in the kiln atmosphere. 
  
samplingthe method of obtaining tile for testing from an agreed-upon lot.
  
sand holestiny pits in the surface of the tile. sandblast. a system of cutting or abrading a surface such as concrete by a stream of sand ejected from a nozzle at high speed by compressed air; often used for cleanup of horizontal construction joints or for exposure of aggregate in architectural concrete.
  
sandblasteda dull non-glossy finish applied to stone; usually achieved by blasting air blended with sand across the surface.
  
sandblastinga method of scarifying the surface of concrete or masonry to provide a bondable surface. compressed air is used to propel a stream of wet or dry sand onto the surface.
  
sander-grinderin addition to sander and grinder attachment both uninstalled and installed tile. the cutting is done dry.
  
sand-sewn finishthe surface left as the stone comes from the gangsaw. moderately smooth, granular surface varying with the texture and grade of stone.
  
sandstonea sedimentary rock consisting usually of quartz, cemented with silica, iron oxide or calcium carbonate. sandstone is durable, has a very high crushing and tensile strength, and a wide range of colors and textures. varieties of sandstone are commonly designated by the kind and prominence of interstitial and bonding materials, as siliceous sandstone (bonding material primarily silica), calcareous sandstone (calcium carbonate prominent as bonding material or as accessory grains or both), argillaceous sandstone (clay minerals prominent as interstitial or bonding materials, or as thin laminac), ferruginous sandstone (iron oxide or hydroxide minerals, or as thin laminac), ferruginous sandstone (iron oxide or hydroxide minerals {hematic, limonite, et al} as interstitial or as bonding materials in sufficient amount to impart appreciable color to the stone): brownstone (ferruginous sandstone of dark brown or reddish brown color), arkose, arkosic sandstone, or feldspathic sandstone (a sandstone that contains an abundance of grains of feldspar), conglomerate (a sandstone composed in large part of rounded pebbles, also called puddingstone).
  
saw cuta cut in hardened concrete utilizing diamond or silicone-carbide blades or discs.
  
sawed edgea clean cut edge generally achieved by cutting with a diamond blade, gang saw or wire saw.
  
sawed facea finish obtained from the process used in producing building stone. varies in texture from smooth to rough and coincident with the type of materials used in sawing; characterized as diamond sawn, sand sawn, chat sawn, and shot sawn.
  
sawed jointa joint cut in hardened concrete, generally not to the full depth of the member, by means of special equipment.
  
scaffoldinga temporary structure for the support of deck forms, cartways, or workmen, or a combination of these such as an elevated platform for supporting workmen, tools, and materials; adjustable metal scaffolding is frequently adapted for shoring in concrete work.
  
scalethin lamina or paper-like sheets of rock, often loose, and interrupting an otherwise smooth surface on the stone.
  
scarifiesa piece of thin sheet metal with teeth or serrations cut in the edge. it is used to roughen fresh mortar surfaces to achieve a good bond for the tile. a scarifies also can be used to roughen the surface of concrete. 
  
scarred facessurface blemishes caused by scraping or other marring of the tile.
  
schista loose term applying to foliated metamorphic (recrystallized) rock characterized by thin foliae that are composed predominantly of minerals of thin platy or prosmatic habits and whose long dimensions are oriented in approximately parallel positions along the planes of foliation. because of this foliated structure, schists split readily along these planes and so possess a pronounced rock cleavage. the more common schists are composed of the micas and other mica-like minerals (such as chlorite) and generally contain subordinate quartz and/or feldspar of comparatively fine-grained texture; all graduations exist between schist and gneiss (coarsely foliated feldspathic rocks).
  
scoriairregular masses of lava resembling clinker of slag; may be cellular (vesticular), dark-colored and heavy.
  
scotiaa concave molding.
  
scratcha mixture of portland cement, sand, and water.
  
scratch coatthe first coat of plaster or stucco applied to a surface in three-coat work; usually cross-raked or scratched to form a mechanical key with the brown coat.
  
scratchedtiles that have surface scratches (usually glazed wall tile) caused from sand, tools or rough handling.
  
scratchesany serrated or sharply tined object that is tised to roughen the surface of one coat of mortar to provide a mechanical key for the next coat. see also scarifies.
  
scratchingthe application of a scratch coat and its combing with a scratches.
  
screedto strike off mortar laying above the desired plane or shape.
  
screed guidefirmly established grade strips or side forms for unformed concrete which will guide the strikeoff in producing the desired plane or shape.
  
sculpturestatuary cut from stone by a sculptor using hand tools and polishing materials.
  
sculptured tiletile with a decorative design of )nigh and low areas molded into the finished fare. ((:ti)
  
sealantan elastomeric material that is used to fill and seal the expansion joint. this material prevents the passage of moisture and allows horizontal and lateral movement at the expansion joint.
  
sealing compoundsee joint sealant.
  
second grade ceramic tileceramic tile with appearance defects not affecting wearing or sanitary qualities.
  
secondary claya clay which lilts been geologically transported from its place of formation. 
  
sedimentaryrock formed chiefly of quartz, kaolite, calcite and dolomite.
  
self-furringmetal lath or welded wire fabric formed in the manufacturing process to include means by which the material is held away from the supporting surface, thus creating a space for “keying” of the insulating concrete, plaster, or stucco.
  
self-spacing tiletile with lugs, spacers, or protuberances on the sides. these devices automatically space the tile for the grout joints. (ss-t-308b)
  
semi-mat glazea colorless or colored glaze having moderate gloss. 
  
semi-porcelaina trade term designating semivitreous dinnerware. 
  
semi-rubbeda finish achieved by rubbing (by hand or machine) the rough or high spots off the surface to be used, leaving a certain amount of the natural surface along with the smoothed areas.
  
semi-vitreousless than -3 percent to 7 percent water absorption. the condition reached by a cement paste, mortar, or concrete when it has lost plasticity to an arbitrary degree, usually measured in terms of resistance to penetration or deformation; initial set refers to first stiffening; final set refers to attainment of significant rigidity; also, strain remaining after removal of stress. the layer of mortar on which the tilt is set. the final coat of mortar of) a %%-all or ceiling; also may he called ,t setting bed. 
  
serpentinea hydrous magnesium silicate material of igneous origin, generally a very dark green color with markings of white, light green or black. one of the hardest varieties of natural building stone.
  
setting spacea term used to indicate the distance from the finished face of the marble to the face of the back-up wall.
  
setting timesee initial setting time and final setting time.
  
shadethe gradation of color.
  
shaped stonecut stone which has been carved, ground or otherwise processed.
  
sharp sandcoarse sand of which the particles are of angular shape.
  
sheara type of stress; a body is in shear when it is subjected to a pair of equal forces which are opposite in direction and which act along parallel planes.
  
shearwalla wall portion of a structural frame intended to resist lateral forces, such as earthquake, wind, and blast, acting in or parallel to the plane of the wall. shelf life. maximum interval during which a material may be stored and remain in a usable condition.
  
shima piece of plastic or other noncorrosive, nonstaining material used to hold joints to size.
  
ship and galley tilea special quarry tile having an indented pattern on the face of the the to produce an antislip effect.
  
shivering (peeling)the splintering which occurs in fired glazes or other ceramic coatings due to critical compressive stress. 
  
shore a hardnessthe reading of a material’s hardness on a durometer, the scale of which is 0-100, used on elastomers as polyacrylic esters and natural rubber. consists of a pinpoint depression into the material, the material being at least 100 mils thick. a shore a reading of 80 equals a shore d reading of 30.
  
shore d hardnessthe reading of a material’s hardness on a durometer similar to the shore a durometer, the scale o£ which is 0-100, used on rigid and semi-rigid materials such as polystyrene. consists of a pinpoint depression into the material. both the shore a and shore d instruments are made by the shore instrument manufacturing company, inc., jamaica, new york. shower floor waterproof membrane. scc waterproof membrane.
  
shot-sawndescription of a finish obtained by using steel shot in the gang sawing process to produce random markings for a rough surface texture.
  
shot-sawn finisha rough gangsaw finish produced by sawing with chilled steel shots.
  
shower panterminology its(-(] in some areas for waterproof membrane. 
  
shower receptorthe floor and side walls of the shower tip to and including the curb of the shower.  shower receptor liner or lining. terminology used in some areas for waterproof membrane.
  
shrinkagethe decrease in volume, or contraction, of a material by the escape of any volatile substance, or by a chemical or physical change in the material. shrinkage crack. crack due to restraint of shrinkage.
  
shrinkage crackingcracking of a structure or member due to failure in tension caused by external or internal restraints as reduction in moisture content develops, or as carbonation occurs, or both.
  
silica (si02)the common oxide of silicon usually found naturally as quartz or in complex combination with other elements as silicates. various polymorphs and natural occurrences of silica include cristobalite, tridymite, cryptocrystalline chert, flint, chalcedony, and hydrated opal.
  
silla flat stone used under windows, doors, and other masonry openings.
  
siltstonea fine-grained non-carbonate clastic rock composed of at least 67 per cent of detrital grains of quartz and silicate minerals of silt size. siltstones are rarely marketed as such but commonly are considered as fine-grained sandstones. this class of sediments is texturally transitional between sandstones and shales (mudstones). many bluestones and siliceous flagstones fall within this category. the term is included in these definitions chiefly to explain the relationship of some siliceous flagstones to the sandstone category.
  
skid resistancea measure of the frictional characteristics of a surface.
  
skim coatsee bond coat.
  
slaba lengthwise cut of large quarry block of stone approximately 5′ x 8′ in size.
  
slatea very fine-grained metamorphic rock derived from sedimentary rock shale. characterized by an excellent parallel cleavage entirely independent of original bedding, by which cleavage the rock may be split easily into relatively thin slabs. essential mineral constituents of slates are usually members of the mica group, commonly sericite, muscovite, and paragonite; of the clay group, chiefly illite and kaolinite; and of the chlorite group. common accessory minerals are iron oxides, calcite, quarts, and feldspar. other minerals may be present also as minor accessories. most slates are derived from shales. others are derived from fine-grained igneous rock, chiefly volcanic tuffs, but these are rare and of little commercial importance.
  
slidea fresh tile wall that has buckled or sagged. this condition may he caused by excessive mortar, insufficient lime in the mortar, or excessive moisture in the scratch coat. a slide also may result if the surface is slick or the mortar is too soft.
  
slip (slurry)a suspension of ceramic material in liquid. 
  
slip coatinga ceramic material or mixture other than a glaze. applied to a ceramic body and fired to the maturity required to develop specified characteristics. 
  
slip glazea glaze consisting primarily of a readily fusible clay or silt. 
  
slip processsee process, wet.
  
slip silla stone sill set between jambs (see lug sill).
  
slip-resistant tiletile having greater slip-resistant characteristics clue to an abrasive admixture, abrasive particles in the surface or grooves or patterns in the surface.
  
slot cutdescription of a tile that has been cut to fit arormd pipes or switch boxes. this tile is usually in the shape of the letter 11 or the letter l.
  
slumpa measure of consistency of freshly mixed concrete, mortar, or stucco equal to the subsidence measured.
  
slump conea mold in the form of the lateral surface of the frustum of a cone with a base diameter of 8 in. (203 mm), top diameter 4 in. (102 mm), and height 12 in. (305 mm), used to fabricate a specimen of freshly mixed concrete for the slump test; a cone 6 in. (152 mm) high is used for tests of freshly mixed mortar and stucco.
  
slump testthe procedure for measuring slump.
  
slurrya mixture of water and any finely divided insoluble material, such as portland cement, slag, or clay in suspension.
  
slush coata pure coat of 11 very soft consistency. this also is called a slurry coat.
  
smelt (noun)a specific batch or lot of frit. (verb). the act of melting a batch of frit. . smelter. a furnace in which the raw materials of a frit batch are melted. 
  
smooth finishdescription of the finish produced by planer machines plus the removal of objectionable tool marks. also known as “smooth planer finish” and “smooth machine finish” snapped edge, quarry cut or broken edge – a natural breaking of a stone either by hand or machine. the break should be at right angles to the top and bottom surfaces.
  
soaping tilei he method of applying a soapy film to newly tiled .valls to protect them from paint and plaster during construction. 
  
soapstonea massive variety of talc with a soapy or greasy feel used for hearths, washtubs, table tops, carved ornaments, chemical laboratories, etc., known for its stain-proof qualities.
  
soffitthe finished, exposed underside of a lintel, arch or portico.
  
soila generic term for unconsolidated natural surface material above bedrock.
  
soldier courseoblong; tile laid with the long side vertical in(] all joints in alignment.
  
solid castingsee casting, solid.
  
solidsthe dry ingredients remaining after evaporation of all volatile solvent or water. not a fluid and not flowable.
  
soluble describes the property of a substance to dissolve in another and form a solution, e.g., sugar is soluble in water.
  
solutionthe process by which a substance (solid, liquid, or gas) is homogeneously mixed with a liquid, called the solvent, and the mixture being incapable of mechanical separation into its components. alloys and amalgams are solutions of metals in metal; brines are solutions of a salt in water; syrups are solutions of sugars in water. solution should not be confused or used interchangeably with such terms as dispersion, suspension or emulsion.
  
solventin a solution, that substance which dissolves another is called the solvent. solvent is also a common term for many liquids which are commonly used in making solutions, e.g., organic solvents, petroleum solvents, etc. also used for thinning down a fluid, and for cleaning purposes.
  
sound stonestone which is free of cracks, fissures, or other physical defects.
  
spacerst-shaped and y-shaped, they are used in installation to separate tile on walls and floors. they are manufactured in various thicknesses from 1/16″ to 1/2′.
  
spacing; mixa dry or dampened mixture of one part portland cement and one part extra-fine sand. this mix is used as a filler in the joints of mounted ceramic mosaic tiles to keep them evenly spaced during installation.
  
spalla fragment, usually in the shape of a flake, detached from a larger mass by a blow, by the action of weather, by pressure, or by expansion within the larger mass.
  
spallssizes may vary from chip-size to one and two man stones. spalls are primarily used for taking up large voids in rough rubble or mosaic patterns.
  
spandrelthat part of a wall between the head of a window and the soil of the window above it.
  
spandrel wallpart of a curtain wall above the top of a window in one story and below the sill of the window in the story above.
  
special-purpose tilea tile, either glazed or unglazed, made to meet or to have specific physical design or appearance characteristics such as size, thickness, shape, color, or decoration; keys or lugs on backs or sides, special resistance to staining, frost, alkalies, acids, thermal shock, physical impact, high coefficient of friction, or electrical properties. 
  
specific gravitythe ratio of the weight of any volume of a mass or substance to the weight of an equal volume of water at a given temperature. the specific gravity of a substance times the density of water equals the density of the substance.
  
specific gravitythe ratio of the weight of any volume of a mass or substance to the weight of an equal volume of water at a given temperature. the specific gravity of a substance times the density of water equals the density of the substance.
  
specksany dark dots on the tile less than 1/sa inch in diameter, and noticeable at a distance of more than three feet.
  
spitouta glaze defect of the pinhole type developed in the decorating kiln, due to evolution of minute gas bubbles from body or glaze. 
  
splash wallsthe walls of a tile drainboard or bathtub. split l cut. an improper l cut that is made by splitting a tile instead of cutting it.
  
splaya beveled or slanted surface.
  
splinea thin strip of material, such as wood or metal, inserted into the edges of two stone pieces or stone tiles to make a butt joint between them.
  
splitdivision of a rock by cleavage.
  
split face (sawed bed)usually split face is sawed on the beds and is split either by hand or with machine so that the surface face of the stone exhibits the natural quarry texture.
  
splitstone finishusually split face is sawed on the beds and is split either by hand or with machine so that the surface face of the stone exhibits the natural quarry texture.
  
spodumenea lithium mineral of the theoretical composition li20 – a1203 – 4si02 (monoclinic crystallization) which on heating inverts to beta spodumene, a form having very low nil thermal expansion. 
  
spot or spottingan adhesive contact, usually of plaster of paris, applied between the back of marble veneer and the face of the back-up wall to plumb or secure standing marble.
  
spotsany dark dots on the face of the tile more than 1/64 inch in diameter.
  
spread, nounthe quantity of adhesive per unit area applied to an adherent, usually expressed in pounds of adhesive per thousand square feet of area. (1) single spread refers to application of adhesive to only one adherent. (2) double spread refers to application of adhesive to both adherents.
  
stabilitythe ability to remain unchanged; equilibrium, steady, constant. ability to restore to original condition after being disturbed by some force.
  
stacked bondstone that is cut to one dimension and installed with unbroken vertical and horizontal joints running the entire length and height of the veneered area.
  
stacking tilea method of installation whereby glazed tiles are placed on the wall so that they are in direct contact with the adjacent tiles. the width of the joints is not maintained by the use of string or other ineans. the tiles may he set with either straight or broken joints. 
  
stainingdiscoloration caused by a foreign matter chemically affecting the material itself.
  
standard grade ceramic tilehighest grade of all types of ceramic tile.
  
starta small fissure.
  
statuea sculpture of a human or animal figure.
  
steam curingcuring of concrete or mortar in water vapor at atmospheric or higher pressures and at temperatures between about 100 and 420 f (40 and 215 c). (see also autoclave curing).
  
steatite porcelaina vitreous ceramic whiteware for technical application in which magnesium metasilicate (mgo – sio,) is the essential crystalline phase. 
  
steatite talemassive talc or the pulverized product. thereof having the general formula 3 mgo – 4sio, h2o. 
  
steatite whitewareany ceramic whiteware in which magnesium metasilicate (nigo – sio,) is the essential crystalline phase. 
  
steel squarethe steel square is one of the most important tilesetting tools. the large arm of the square is 2″ wide and 24″ long and is called the body or blade. the smaller arm is at a 90-degree angle to the blade and is 1l/.,” wide and 16″ long; it is called the tongue. the point where the outside edges of the blade and tongue join is called the heel. the surface with the manufacturer’s name is called the face; the opposite surface is called the back.
  
stickingexpression in the marble finishing trade describing the process of cementing together broken slabs/pieces of marble.
  
stonesometimes synonymous with rock, but more properly applied to individual blocks, masses or fragments taken from their original formation or considered for commercial use.
  
stoneduse of a carborundum stone to eliminate the jagged and flaked edges, due to cutting.
  
stonewarea vitreous or semivitreous ceramic ware of fine texture, made primarily from nonrefractory fire clay. 
  
stoola flat stone, generally polished, used as an interior sill.
  
storage lifein the period of time during which a packaged adhesive can be stored under specified temperature conditions and remain suitable for use. sometimes called “shelf life”.
  
story polesee layout stick.
  
straight jointthe usual style of laying tile where all the joints are.in alignment.
  
straightedgea straight piece of luynber that is used to rod mortar and to align tile.
  
stratificationa structure produced by deposition of sediments in beds or layers (strata), laminae, lenses, wedges, and other essentially tabular units.
  
stretchera masonry unit laid with its length horizontal and parallel with the face of a wall or other masonry member.
  
striking jointsa process of removing excess grout from the joints by wiping with a sponge or cloth or scraping with a curved instrument. 
  
strip rubblegenerally speaking, strip rubble comes from a ledge quarry, the beds of the stone, while uniformly straight, are of the natural cleft as the stone is removed from the ledge, and then split by machine to approximately 4 inch (100 mm) widths.
  
stripslong pieces of stone, usually low height ashlar courses, where length to height ratio is at maximum for the material used.
  
structural defectscracks or laminations in the body of the tile which detract from the aesthetic appearances and/or the structural soundness of the tile installation.
  
stuccoa cement plaster used for coating exterior walls and other exterior surfaces of buildings. (see also plaster.)
  
studvertical member of appropriate size (2×4 to 4×10 in.) (50x 100 to 100×250 mm) and spacing (16 to 30 in.) (400 to 750 mm) to support sheathing of concrete forms; also a headed steel device used to anchor steel plates or shapes to concrete members.
  
styrolitea longitudinally streaked, columnar structure occurring in some marbles and of the same material as the marble in which it occurs.
  
substratethe underlying support for the ceramic tile installation.
  
surroundan efframement.